Cabell - Cyrus

Cabell, Abraham Joseph (1800–1831), papers, 1824–1834. 22 items. Mss2C1111b.
Primarily, the papers of a planter of Jefferson County, Fla. Collection includes a letter, 16 March 1828, to William H. Cabell of Richmond in which Abraham Joseph Cabell relates having difficulties with the slave Jordan since coming to Florida and considering sending him to New Orleans to be sold. Deed of trust, 1830, lists slaves and indicates several family relationships, and slave lists, 1832, provide information on values and family relationships for slaves on Abraham Joseph Cabell's estate. An affidavit, 1832, of John Grattan Gamble concerns the sale of the slaves from Cabell's estate, listing nine slaves, including two married couples (one couple having an infant child).

Cabell, Nathaniel Francis (1807–1891), letter, 1860. 1 p. Mss2C1116a1. Typescript.
Letter, 6 January 1860, written from Nelson County to Henry Stephens Randall of Cortlandtville, N.Y., stating his opinions on John Brown's raid at Harpers Ferry and his views on slavery in general, with current political thoughts and a biblical and theological defense of slavery, referring to the Reverend Thornton Stringfellow's pamphlet in support of slavery.

Cabell, William (1730–1798), commonplace books, 1769–1795. 9 vols. Mss5:5C1117:1–9. Microfilm reel C326.
These commonplace books provide information on a wide range of Cabell's activities as a surveyor and justice of the peace in Amherst County. Many of the earlier entries deal with his agricultural estates in Amherst concerning weather, sowing and harvesting, and livestock slaughtering. Numerous entries concern births, deaths, and purchases of slaves.

Volume 1 contains a hat distribution list for ten slaves, 20 January 1770. Volume 2 contains a blanket distribution list by family units, September 1770. Volume 4 describes the agreement with Theodorick Scruggs as overseer not to work slaves in rain, snow, or at night, 20 July 1773. In a later entry Cabell notes that another position must be found for Scruggs, because his cruelty makes him an unacceptable overseer, 28 August 1773. Volume 5 contains a blanket distribution list, 20 November 1774, and a later November entry indicates that fifty-nine pairs of shoes were made for the slaves. In volume 7 Cabell hired out Joshua, 2 January 1779. In volume 9 several entries relate to hiring out the slave Bob as a smith and the training Bob should receive, 26 December 1785, 2 January 1786, March 1786.

Cabell, William (1759–1822), commonplace books, 1791–1822. 2 vols. Mss5:5C1118:2–3. Microfilm reel C326.
Concerns agricultural operations at Union Hill plantation in Nelson County. Volume 2 includes slave lists, usually a tally given in March of each year to calculate taxes; lists provide name and general age category (twelve to sixteen and sixteen to fifty).

Cabell family papers, 1739–1996. 20 items. Mss1C1118b.
Consist of diaries, account books, land patents, and scattered correspondence of members of the Cabell family of Nelson County. Section 2 contains diaries, 1851–1869, of Mayo Cabell (1800–1869), merchant and planter, in some of which the births and deaths of slaves and the distribution of clothes and food to slaves are recorded.

Cabell family papers, 1774–1941. 886 items. Mss1C1118a. Microfilm reels C543–545.
Although the bulk of this collection deals with the activities of the Virginia branch of the Cabell family, the papers that concern slaves relate to the Florida plantation, Attatulga, in Jefferson County, and those papers about freedmen and women concern a South Carolina plantation in the Abbeville district.

Section 14 contains letters to Edward Carrington Cabell, owner of Attatulga, from the overseer, W. Floyd. He describes the routine operation of the cotton plantation in the 1830s. Each of the eleven letters begins with at least a brief statement concerning the health and physical condition of the slaves. Some letters provide more detail, as when whooping cough and typhoid occurred. Births, deaths, sicknesses, and hirings are noted. A September 1830 letter also lists slaves and the amounts of cotton attributed to each. Section 16 contains deeds, 1848–1857, and bills of sale. An 1851 deed to Attatulga lists approximately seventy slaves by name only. Notes dated 1857 concern the hire of William Wooten and Peter Wooten; William died, and Peter ran away. Additional notes detail the hiring of slave and free women and their training as domestics.

Sections 24 and 43 contain freedmen's and women's agreements to work a South Carolina plantation as they had been accustomed to do before the Civil War. The former contains a list by sex and share of each worker's portion. The latter details what Charles T. Haskell (owner) will provide and what the laborers promise.

Cabell family papers, 1808–1935. ca. 1,500 items. Mss1C1118cFA2.
Correspondence, financial and legal papers, and other miscellaneous records of members of the Cabell family of Inglewood, Nelson County. Among a number of family members represented is George Washington Cabell (1802–1869), and agreements, deeds, and receipts of his dating from about 1825 to 1845 concern the purchase and hiring of a number of slaves (series 3). In a miscellaneous folder late in the collection (series 7, folder 100) may be found tax receipts relating to Nelson County, including one for real property owned by Henry Scott, an African American. A supplementary finding aid to this collection is maintained in hard copy in the library and may also be accessed online.

Cadwallader, John N., papers, 1860–1892. 43 items. Mss1C1158a.
Primarily consist of letters, 1861–1864, written by Anna Bell Cadwallader (later Gregory) of Newtown (later Stephens City), Frederick County, to her brother John N. Cadwallader (1839–1876) while he served in the Confederate States Army. In particular, letters mention slaves running away to Union forces (30 March 1863). Anna supported the Union initially and thought it was too much to give up simply to continue the system of slavery.

Callis, Robert, receipt, 1817. 1 p. Mss2C1344a1.
Receipt, 23 December 1817, Mathews County, to William Armistead Billups for sale of Peter, as a consequence of legal action.

Campbell, Archibald (d. 1774), letter, 1763. 1 p. Mss2C1522a1.
Letter, 12 May 1763, Norfolk, to Henry Tucker, Philadelphia, concerning a conviction and death of the slave Charles.

Campbell, John, account, 1802. 1 p. Mss2C15268a1. Photocopy.
Account with Benjamin Mosby and Peter Tinsley concerning the sale of slaves by Campbell as an agent for Buck and Brauder.

Campbell family papers, 1802–1879. 43 items. Mss2C1539b.
Members of the Campbell and Stewart families lived in Williamsburg and Fredericksburg and also in Philadelphia, Pa. In section 1, Ferdinand Stewart Campbell Stewart writes to his uncle John Campbell that he and his brother agree on the disposition of slaves in his father's estate, November 1815, and that he has arranged to hire out a slave in Westmoreland County so as not to separate the slave from his family, October 1817. Section 4 contains accounts concerning sale of dower slaves and hiring out of slaves.

Caperton family papers, 1729–1973. 1,004 items. Mss1C1716a.
Much of the material in this Monroe County (now W.Va.), family collection consists of family correspondence and genealogical notes. Section 10 contains a photocopy of an 1865 slave pass for Lewis to join his master, John Caperton, in Petersburg. Section 22 contains an 1858 bill of sale for Claiborn in Mercer County (now W.Va.). Section 23 includes an undated letter to Henry Alexander of Monroe County from Sam Porter, a freedman in Madison County, Miss., inquiring after old friends and family, especially his mother.

Caroline County, enrolling office, certificate, 1864. 1 p. Mss4C22144a1.
Certificate, 26 October 1864, issued to John Baylor for impressment of two slaves, Paul and Ferry, including estimated values of the slaves.

Carrington, Tucker (1800–1875), account book, 1868–1878. 116 pp. Mss5:3C23584:1.
Tucker Carrington kept this account book as trustee for R. H. Moss and Bro. of Mecklenburg County. In addition to general accounts for the Mecklenburg County farm (cattle, horses, and tools), it contains records of wages, share of crops, and charges for individual hired hands. Accounts are itemized indicating amounts charged for food, clothing, medical costs, and various household items. The type of work performed by each laborer is often indicated.

Carrington family papers, 1744–1940. 5,068 items. Mss1C2358d. Microfilm reels B10–12.
This collection contains a number of African American records. Certain affidavits dated 1846 and 1848 pertain to fugitive slaves (sections 13 and 34). An 1839 deed involving Anne Cabell (Carrington) McPhail and John B. McPhail of Charlotte County concerns forty slaves; names and family groups are indicated (section 14). An 1847 list of names and ages covers approximately fifty slaves at Mulberry Hill (section 15). Another list, 1845–1849, reports a dozen slave births. These appear to be related to the same group of slaves (section 62).

Section 39 includes an 1865 Confederate government receipt to Clement McPhail of Halifax County for impressing the slave Watkins for labor; the verso provides valuation and physical description of Watkins. In the same section are shoe accounts. Sections 39 and 41 contain labor agreements, 1865, for freedmen and women as field hands, a cook, and a blacksmith.

Carrington family papers, 1755–1839. 83 items. Mss1C2358f.
The first part of this collection contains a number of Judge Paul Carrington's account books. The volume for 1755–1775 (section 2) contains lists of purchases and sales of slaves, prices, ages, and mother's names. Additional account books (in sections 5, 11, 14, and 17) include lists of slaves identified by overseer or plantation (at Halifax or the Fork), with shares of ownership designated. These lists appear on the last pages of each book (except for section 17, where this information is located on page 12).

Letters written to Mary Venable (Carrington) Grigsby of Edgehill, Charlotte County (section 26), include an 1834 letter from George Wilson McPhail, newly arrived in Connecticut, comparing his impressions of New England with those of his Virginia home. Among other things, he describes attitudes about slavery and abolition. A letter from Elizabeth M. Nelson reveals nothing about the Southampton Insurrection (1831) except for a postscript directing Grigsby to read about it in the newspapers. A September 1831 letter from Mary Elizabeth (McPhail) Smith in Norfolk describes her father's preparations during the unrest. An 1828 letter from Sarah L. W. (otherwise unidentified) includes two brief sentences about the creation of a colonization society in Richmond.

Carrington family papers, 1761–1954. 167 items. Mss1C2358c.
This collection contains several notes, ca. 1772, concerning Judge Paul Carrington's investment in fifty slaves imported to Bermuda Hundred and the distribution of shares in the partnership formed for the purchase and sale of the slaves (section 4).

Carrington family papers, 1817–1895. 334 items. Mss1C2358g.
Considerable detail on the hiring out arrangements for the slave Ephraim over a five-year period appears in this collection (section 1). Henry Carrington of Ingleside, Charlotte County, owned Ephraim, who was managed by Thomas Clement Read of Roanoke and hired out in the Roanoke area. Arrangements were such that whatever Ephraim earned above a certain amount could be kept for himself.

Carrington family papers, 1832–1884. 26 items. Mss1C2358e.
This collection includes an 1853 bond for the hire of seven male slaves to work on the Richmond and Danville Railroad and provides for the employer to pay for runaway expenses and doctors' bills (section 2). A large group of lists, 1850–1865, of names, ages, and maternal relationships cover approximately 150 slaves belonging to various members of the Carrington family on Charlotte County plantations (section 3). An account book, 1862–1882, kept by Henry Alexander Carrington contains on the back page an 1861 list of twenty slaves arranged by age and occupation (section 5). The same book also includes scattered accounts for wages, sundries, and medicine for freedmen.

Carter, Charles (1707–1764), agreement, 1762. 1 p. Mss2C2453a2.
Agreement, 17 April 1762, between Charles Carter of King George County and John Champe, also of King George County, pertaining to the marriage of Ann Carter and John Champe, Jr.; Ann was to receive the slave Diana as a gift, and John Champe was to receive land and unnamed slaves in Prince William County.

Carter, Frances, deed, n.d. 1 p. Mss11:2C2454:1. Imperfect.
Deed of trust to Claiborne Barksdale for slaves in Charlotte County.

Carter, Joseph (1697–1751), deed, 1739/40. 1 p. Mss2C2457a1.
Deed, 2 January 1740, of Joseph Carter to James Davis of Spotsylvania County for the slave man Robin and woman Bet.

Carter, Robert (1728–1804), account book, 1769–1783. [84], [62] pp. Mss5:3C2466:1.
This account book, maintained by Carter while living at Nomini Hall, Westmoreland County, concerns the estate of Benjamin Tasker and includes records of the sale of slaves at Belair, Prince Georges County, Md.

Carter, Robert (1728–1804), papers, 17601815. 12 items. Mss1C2465a. Microfilm reel C222.
Letterbooks, account books, land books, and books of prayer kept by the planter Robert Carter III of Westmoreland County. A letterbook covering the early 1770s makes several references to the slaves belonging to the Baltimore Iron Works, in which Carter planned to buy an interest. Of particular note is a December 1772 reference to Mr. Randall's claim against the government for the loss of the slave Moses, who escaped from the public jail. In October 1773, Carter arranges for the hire of a baker, Samuel, and refers to the current practice of owners being chargeable for clothes and taxes of hired slaves.

An account book, 1773–1774 (section 3), concerns provisions for slaves at Nomini Hall, Dick's Quarter, Billingsgate Quarter, Old Ordinary, and Coles Point. An account book, 1784–1787 (section 4), contains several entries for medical bills and blankets for slaves. The account book covering 1785–1792 (section 5) includes entries for salt and tallow for the slaves at Nomini Hall, Gemini, Taurus, Old Ordinary, and Coles Point. Entries for James Harrison, overseer (l. 91), 1783–1785, refer to "tax on Aggy not tithable," and for Frances Bell, mulatto (l. 106), include charges for her nursing services.

The 1802 land book (section 7) provides a general background on the transfer of land and slaves at Nomini Hall for the eighteenth century, and page 29 makes reference to the rental of Sagittarius with thirteen slaves in 1797 and removal of the slaves by 1798.

Carter, Robert (1774–1805), letter, 1803. 11 pp. Mss2C2466a1. Typescript. Photocopy.
Letter, 12 and 14 October 1803, to his children concerning his abhorrence of slavery, his view that individual emancipation does not solve the social concerns of slavery, and an isolated incident involving slaves. The letter is an apology and also contains advice for his children.

Carter, Sarah S., diary, 1866. [22] pp. Mss5:1C2467:1.
Concerns a trip made by Sarah S. Carter from Philadelphia, Pa., to Baltimore, Md., Hampton, Petersburg, Richmond, and Williamsburg, Va., and Washington, D.C. A companion on the trip, Sarah Cadbury, was on her way to Yorktown to teach at a school for freedmen. Journal entries describe visits to freedmen's school churches and neighborhoods in York County and a tour of an African American church and hospital in Richmond.

Carter, Thomas Henry (1831–1908), account book, 1859–1888. [464] pp. Mss5:3C2468:1.
Includes records of the purchase of land and farm animals in Louisiana in 1859 by Thomas Nelson Carter, Thomas Henry Carter, and William Page Carter, as well as a record of slaves sent from Pampatike, King William County, and Clarke County, Va., presumably to Louisiana, ca. 1859. Another section of the volume, maintained 1874–1888, bears accounts with agricultural workers and house servants, some African American, indicating days worked and wages earned while at Pampatike.

Carter, Thomas Henry (1831–1908), account book, 1869–1872. [120] pp. Mss5:3C2468:2.
Includes records of wages and rations of agricultural laborers, plantation overseers, and house servants (some African American). Kept at Pampatike, King William County.

Carter family papers, 1651–1861. 2,556 items. Mss1C2468a. Microfilm reels C217–222.
Much of this particular family collection centers around the papers of Robert Carter (1728–1804) and George Carter, prominent plantation owners in Virginia's Northern Neck, in particular the county of Westmoreland. Of special interest is Robert Carter's correspondence in 1792 and 1793, during which time he emancipated a number of his slaves. George Carter of Baltimore, Md., and Oatlands in Loudoun County, however, dealt extensively in buying and selling slaves.

The letterbook, 1727–1728, of an earlier Robert Carter (1663–1732) contains much information regarding the buying and selling of slaves for Corotoman plantation in Lancaster County. There is an index accompanying the volume (section 2). Inventories, 1733, of Carter's estate include records for a number of plantations on the Northern Neck. The inventories contain names, ages, trades, and some family groupings of slaves. (A typescript is available; this information has been published in the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 6 and 7 [1898–1899]).

Simon Sallard sent his reports, 1732–1739, as overseer for Nomini Hall plantation to John Carter of Corotoman and briefly reported on the health of the plantation hands at the close of each document (section 12).

The correspondence of Robert Carter III (section 22) contains much information about attitudes toward slavery, social obligations pertaining to slavery and emancipation of slaves, individual slaveowners' obligations toward slaves (letters of Samuel Jones, Thomas Carneal), concerns of overseers who must manage slaves who are awaiting freedom during a "phased" emancipation plan, some of whom run away (letters of Littleberry Apperson, Christopher Collins), Pennsylvania's emancipation plan (Samuel Jones), renting land to freed African Americans, buying, selling, and hiring slaves to keep husbands and wives together (Christopher Collins), and a specific instance of abuse of slaves by a family member (report of Benjamin Dawson). John Jack of Hampshire County (now W.Va.) details his concerns for a boy being sold for life whose mother was freed by Robert Carter. The boy had lived in Maryland with Carter; Jack implies that this circumstance provides freedom. Nicholas Ridgely Warfield of Maryland relates the story of Thomas Mahoney, who was sold by the Baltimore Company to ten subscribers to obtain his freedom; some of the subscribers defaulted, and by 1802 there was evidence that perhaps Mahoney was born free. The court case was dragging, and interest was accruing on the loans.

Section 23 contains accounts, some for shoes bought and repaired in bulk, for delivery of babies, bleeding slaves for medical reasons, and hirings (see accounts for 1771, 1790, and 1792). In section 36 are several lists. A 1775 list of "census" information at Nomini Hall includes sixty-two inhabitants by color (including white), trade, and age; white males in service have the number of years served indicated as well. There is also a 1784 Nomini Hall list of tithables and a 1789 Aries plantation list of tithables, in which slaves are grouped by family.

Two bills of lading, both 1774 (section 38), show schooners sailing between Nomini and Norfolk mastered by African Americans: Cesar (of the Bess) and William Lawrence, a mulatto, of the Harriet. A number of affidavits (section 40) attest to the character of William Powell as a compassionate and goodnatured overseer. Another affirms that Edmund Henry, although born a slave, is to live with the Robert Carter family in Maryland as a family member. Another (Peck, 1792) states that Peck is no longer responsible for the maintenance of Abraham and Betty, property of Robert Carter. A 1792 memorandum also indicates that certain slaves at various Westmoreland plantations of Robert Carter are to enjoy their own discretion and judgment for renting land and hiring themselves out.

Correspondence of George Carter (section 52) includes letters from Peter Durting, William Forbes, and George Whitelock, describing purchases and sales of a number of slaves; some of the business transactions aroused suspicions, in particular the sale of Joe (see Whitelock letters).

Cary family papers, 1844–1968. 1,360 items. Mss1C2597b.
Papers of the Cary family of Hampton and Richmond. Section 1 contains a Civil War letter written by Columbia H. Hudgins Cary (of Hampton) concerning her need for servants and a letter, July 1861, by John B. Cary concerning his inability to remove servants from Hampton. Correspondence of John B. Cary with George A. Magruder, Jr., discusses a citizen’s desire to reclaim slaves from Fortress Monroe. Section 2 contains a receipt for the sale of a female slave to John B. Cary. Section 9 includes correspondence of Maria Barry (Abert) Cary concerning her interest in an incident in Georgia involving an employee of the Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company who tortured an African American girl for petty theft (includes correspondence with the Atlanta Journal Constitution regarding the incident and news of the court case). Section 19 includes a letter written by W. Gordon McCabe concerning his impressions of Charleston, S.C., and its African American population during the Civil War.

Cedar Park Farm, Middlesex County, papers, 1783–1941. 8 items. Mss2C4621b.
This collection contains a complaint in chancery (copy), 1825, of William Woodford, David Woodford, Corbin Lane [an infant], and Daphney West, freed slaves formerly belonging to Maj. James Ross, against Ross's administrator, John Chinn, calling for the division of the Cedar Park property. These materials include the court's decree ordering a commission to lay off forty acres, including the spring, for Daphney West and divide the remainder among the other complainants, with William Woodford to receive the dwelling house and David Woodford to receive the blacksmith's shop. Also included is a deed of trust, 1836, of Richard C. Muse to Fortius Q. Keiningham to land in Middlesex County and partial title to a slave woman named Ruth for the benefit of Walter Healy and Thomas Muse.

A Celebration of Freedom, Nomini Hall, Westmoreland County, papers, 1991. 64 items. Mss3C3304a.
Include speeches, news releases, photographs, and other miscellaneous items concerning the two hundredth anniversary of the manumission of the slaves of Robert Carter (17281804) of Nomini Hall plantation in Westmoreland County.

Chamberlayne family papers, 1821–1938. 2,940 items. Mss1C3552c. Microfilm reels C291–293.
This collection includes a deed, 2 January 1861, of E. P. Chamberlayne to his mother, Martha Burwell (Dabney) Chamberlayne, for the slave Otway, son of Molly (section 31). An 1864 letter of Benjamin Stoddert Ewell (1810–1894) to John M. Speed of Lynchburg asks Speed to see that the slave bearing the letter is allowed to be hired in Lynchburg and stay with his mother. The slave was formerly attached to General Joseph Eggleston Johnston's headquarters near Atlanta (section 69).

Chambliss, John Randolph (1809–1875), letter, 1863. 3 pp. Mss4C7a3. Photocopy.
Letter, 27 January 1863, Richmond, to the president of the Confederate States of America, addressing concerns about slaves impressed to work on fortifications, in particular, Chambliss believes that certain counties have a higher runaway rate than do other counties.

Chandler family of Caroline County, papers, 1757–1851. 49 items. Mss2C3616b.
Include an inventory, 1822, listing approximately twenty-five slaves with name, age, and value, belonging to the estate of William Chandler (item b8). Also include an agreement, 1811, concerning Samuel Chiles's sale of four slaves to Farish Coleman, providing names of the slaves sold (item b11).

Chappawamsic Baptist Church, Stafford County, records, 17661919. 2 vols. Mss5:8BX6251C3682:1–2.
These two volumes contain lists of members, dates of baptism, notations of owners or free status for African American members, dates of meetings, preachers, and texts. The first volume contains additional details of reasons for church censure of members and thus recounts much of the members' social lives. The records document much interaction between members and nonmembers, regardless of color.

Chappelear family papers, 1803–1998. 429 items. Mss1C3688a.
Concerns the Chappelear and related Baird, Leake, and Snead families of Culpeper, Rappahannock, and Fauquier counties. Section 3 contains a receipt, dated 1841, concerning John Chappelear (of Fauquier County) and the hiring of two slaves, Eliza and Charles. Section 4 contains the legal notes, 1855–1857, of James Pendleton Chappelear (also of Fauquier County), two of which concern the hiring of African American servants. A photograph of a slave belonging to Eveline Archer (Leake) Binford is located in section 11.

Charles City County, Court, records, 1802. 5 items. Mss4C3808b.
A set of writs of execution concerning the satisfaction of debts. The writ issued against William Spraggins bears a note indicating the satisfaction of the debt by the seizing of Lucy, an African American slave, and her subsequent sale.

Charles City County, records, 1642–1842. 77 items. Mss3C3807a.
Manuscript records removed from the courthouse of Charles City County in 1862 by the father of Arthur G. Fuller, who served as an officer in the United States Army. Included in the records are affidavits, appraisals, bonds, complaints, deeds, indentures, inventories, judgments, marriage bonds, fragments of order books, petitions, receipts, and wills from Charles City County. Include a 1693 affidavit of Dudley Digges and others in Warwick County to Governor Sir Edmund Andros concerning the imprisonment of the slave Frank for questioning concerning a slave uprising (item a57); a 1780 receipt issued by Samuel Wills of Warwick County to Matthew Wills for the sale of two women slaves (a72); and an 1831 bond of George W. Macrae covering the hire of the slave Clary and her child (a22).

Charlotte County, records, 1763–1896. 1,003 items. Mss3C3815a.
Section 140 contains several lists; the first folder holds 1860 lists of slaves and records owner, age, sex, color, fugitive status (whether fugitive or manumitted), presence of any disabilities (deaf, dumb, blind, insane, or idiotic), and the number of slave houses provided by the slaveowner; the second folder contains lists, n.d., of road hands, some designated as African American; and a third folder concerns delinquent taxes, 1881, listing African Americans separately.

Chimborazo School, Richmond, Va., register, 1868–1869. 1 vol. Mss4C442a1.
This register was kept by the teacher, Elizabeth Cartland, a Quaker from New Hampshire. The volume is a pre-printed formbook that includes names and ages for approximately seventy students at this school for African Americans. Daily attendence was also recorded, along with subjects taught.

Chinn, Rawleigh (d. 1816), will, 1816. 3 pp. Mss2C4415b.
Will, 13 May 1816, probated in Loudoun County, including 1843 affidavits concerning the ownership of the slave women Judy and Eliza by Chinn's daughters Elizabeth Wilson and Lucy Beveridge.

Christian, Ann Webster Gordon (1837–1894), diary, 1860–1867. [138] pp. Mss5:1C4626:1.
This diary was kept before her marriage by Ann Webster Gordon in Richmond and Staunton, and while the author traveled in the state of Mississippi. It concerns her life as an educator, governess, and religious teacher of slaves. Along with her comments on slavery in Mississippi, the diary includes a list of slaves who attended Sunday School in Richmond and their masters.

Christian, George Llewellyn (1841–1923), letter, 1904. 1 p. Mss2C4623a2. Typescript.
Letter to the editor of the Richmond Times-Dispatch, 4 November 1904, concerning slaves' fidelity to their masters at the end of the Civil War. Bears letter, 11 February 1865, of Dr. F. W. Hancock analyzing a poll taken of seventy-two slaves.

Chrystie, Thomas (1753?–1812), papers, 1783–1818. 421 items. Mss1C4695a.
The correspondence of this Hanover County physician (section 1) contains many scattered notes requesting his services for slaves, and his accounts confirm that aspect of his medical practice. Of particular note is an 1811 letter he wrote to Philip Croxton in response to mistreatment of Chrystie's slave Bob, details of the injuries, and Chrystie's intent to sue for damages. Correspondence in 18051806 with John Simpson and Conrad Webb provides details on indenturing the slave James with Simpson, a saddle and harness maker in Petersburg, an arrangement that proved unsuitable. An 1813 note from Michael Hancock of Richmond to Benjamin Oliver of Hanover Town asks Oliver to be alert for Billy, a fugitive slave (section 8).

Chrystie, Thomas (1753?–1812), papers, 1784–1811. 15 items. Mss2C4695b.
Additional papers of the Hanover County physician. Include an 1807 letter of John Hill concerning the hiring out of an enslaved carpenter, an 1811 letter of Edward Hundley concerning medical care for his slave Billy, and accounts concerning the medical treatment of slaves and the payment of taxes on land, slaves, and other property.

Claiborne family papers, 1665–1911. 3,671 items. Mss1C5217b. Microfilm reels C295–297 and C586–589.
The papers of this Richmond family primarily consist of the correspondence and legal papers of planters and lawyers. A 1760–1761 inventory of John Herbert's estate in Chesterfield County includes approximately twenty slaves and valuations, and a 1797 affidavit concerns the purchase of twelve slaves from Augustine Claiborne's estate (section 2). An undated note for the division of twenty slaves of Herbert Claiborne's estate contains names and values (section 6).

Section 27 consists of the correspondence of Herbert Augustine Claiborne. Letters, 1840, of Lucian C. Browne concern a misunderstanding on the part of Mary Dudley over a deed of trust pertaining to two of her slaves. In section 38, the 1840 will of Peter Spain, a free African American in Richmond, provides for the emancipation of his wife and division of his estate between her and his two free sisters of Petersburg. He also makes provision for a free boy, John Finney, who lives with him. Included in the same section is Spain's notice to the sheriff of Kanawha County (now W.Va.) for failure to return funds for a writ issued out of the Henrico County court.

Section 40 contains two judgments, 1845–1846, against a freedman, Joseph R. Dailey of Richmond, on claims of $38–$90 by two New York companies. Section 45 contains an 1865 lease of Herbert A. Claiborne to Edward Davenport, a freedman, for a two-horse stable at Broad and 11th streets in Richmond.

Clark, Adèle (18821983), papers, 1882–1983. ca. 900 items. Mss1C5472aFA2.
Clark, noted artist and suffragist, participated in a variety of political activities. Among her papers (box 2) is a folder labeled "Racial Issues, 1915–1955," which includes an interview, ca. 1915–1920, with a former slave from Maryland, who as a youth escaped and joined the U.S. Army during the Civil War. Also included in the folder is material relating to twentieth-century events.

Clarke County Colored Horse Show Association, Berryville, records, 19201923. 1 vol. Mss4C5585a1.
Ledger, 19201923, of the Clarke County Colored Horse Show Association (Berryville, Va.). The constitution states that the groups objective was to encourage thrift and the better breeding of good horses among colored people of this country (p. 12). The volume contains the associations constitution, order of business, minutes, roll call, list of premiums paid, and miscellaneous account information. The minutes describe the structure of meetings, election of officers, plans to raise money for premiums, logistics of running a horse show, and plans for a banquet. Secretary Benjamin Layton (b. 1883?) and Corresponding Secretary Hayes W. Brown (b. 1878?) appear to be the main keepers of the ledger. At its peak, the club numbered approximately 35 members.

Clarke, Herman R. (19072002), Autobiography of Eighty-four Years, 1990. 1 vol. Mss7:1C5535:1.
Autobiography of Herman R. Clarke of Richmond, who graduated from Armstrong High School in 1924 and worked several jobs before obtaining a scholarship from the Second Baptist Church to study at Virginia Union University. He graduated with a degree in religion and languages in 1932. In the following decades, he taught and served as principal at a private school and in many public schools in counties including Buckingham, Goochland, and Mecklenburg. He became an ordained minister and served as pastor of several churches including Bethany Baptist Church in Charles City County, Washington Street Baptist Church in Bedford, and Hartsville Baptist Church in Lancaster County. His teaching career took him back to Richmond, where he taught at Maymont Middle School, a pilot school for desegregation. He married Elmira Sarah Kenney and had two daughters, Frances Clarke and Ophelia (Clarke) Patterson.

The manuscript describes Clarkes childhood living on West Moore Street in Newtowne, an African American neighborhood in Richmond, his educational goals, and his career path. He reflects on the influences in his life, his experiences with racial discrimination, and memories of the Civil Rights Movement. The autobiography provides a glimpse into early twentieth-century social conditions in Virginia, commenting on racial tensions in Bedford, Lynchburg, and Richmond.

Clarke family papers, 1811–1898. 149 items. Mss1C5587c.
Members of the Clarke family were merchants in Richmond and surrounding areas. Augustus Burfoot Clarke was also a teacher involved with the Southern Baptist denomination.

Richardson Henry Griffith writes Augustus Clarke from Washington, D.C., about the difficulties of transporting slaves into the District of Columbia and the resulting ownership issues. An 1861 letter from Clarke's sister Julia Ann (Clarke) Childrey mentions the slaves' concerns that more corn should be planted because of the war (section 2). An 1841 account concerns a doctor's fee for visiting Jenny (section 4). Clarke's postwar essay (damaged) describes his views on the conditions of African American life (section 6).

Clarke family papers, 1815–1938. 761 items. Mss1C5587a.
Members of this Richmond family include hardware merchants and a Baptist minister and college professor. Section 21 contains an 1816 letter of John Clarke of Powhatan County to Frederick Clarke, concerning the unauthorized departures and absences of five of John's slaves in Frederick's care. In section 54 is a badly damaged list, 18331847, of approximately twenty-five slave births, with some deaths indicated.

Clay, Henry (1777–1852), papers, 1826–1842. 18 items. Mss2C5794b.
Include a letter written by Joseph Richardson of Hingham, Mass., to Clay concerning the possible circulation of Clay's recent speech on slavery and Richardson's opposition to the abolitionist movement.

Clay family papers, 1769–1951. 181 items. Mss1C5795a.
The more prominent members of this central Virginia family include the Reverend Charles Clay (1745–1820) of Albemarle and Chesterfield counties and Odin Green Clay (1795?–1882) of Campbell County and Lynchburg.

The Reverend Charles Clay's account book, 1773–1818 (section 1), contains scattered entries concerning the hire of slaves (mostly Suckey). Section 3 contains several 1864 receipts and valuations for slaves of Odin Clay impressed by Confederate authorities for building fortifications near Lynchburg. An 1861 list of thirty-six slaves owned by DeWitt Clinton Clay at Tomahawk Creek in Campbell County provides names and ages by family units (section 5). A commonplace book, ca. 1855, of an unknown compiler contains newspaper clippings on religion, slavery, and abolitionism. In the back is a list of eight slave families, including ages of family members (section 12).

Clayton family papers, 1852–1865 (bulk 1861–1865). 104 items. Mss1C5796a.
Civil War–era papers of the Clayton and related Semmes families of Georgia. Section 1 contains a letter of Gen. Paul Jones Semmes (of Wilkes County, Ga.) in which he discusses that Federal troops stole some of his slaves in Georgia and that he had to abandon operations on his plantation because of harassment by Union forces. Section 2 contains a letter, 1863 February 10, concerning William Harris Clayton’s need for a servant and a letter, 1863 April 17, discussing his capture of a free African American who had been helping Northern troops.

Clemmitt family papers, 18351933. 13 items. Mss1C5915a.
Miscellaneous papers relating to the Clemmitt and related Freeman families of Richmond and Henrico County, Va. The collection chiefly consists of the writings of Thomas Clemmitt, Jr. (18531934), receipts, and deeds to land in the city of Richmond belonging to William Freeman (b. 1805?). Items of interest include a fine, 1839, against William Freeman for permitting a slave, Dabney Smith, to go at large, and a bill of sale, 1843, of John Hutcheson to William Freeman for a slave named Amanda. Also of interest is Clemmitts biography of his father, Thomas Clemmitt, Sr. (18251873), reflecting on the effects of Reconstruction in Richmond and the increased racial tensions that followed. He describes a confrontation between former slaves and soldiers over the possession of a business building on the southern border of the city.

Cobb, Daniel William (1811–1872), diaries, 1842–1872. 25 vols. Mss5:1C6334:1–25. Microfilm reels C238–240.
The diaries of this Southampton County planter provide information about agricultural operations in general. Several 1842 entries express concern about unrest and an anticipated insurrection in Petersburg (pages 100, 116). Cobb's 1867 diary contains accounts for hired hands on the back pages, in addition to the usual description of agricultural operations. The diary for 1868 contains an entry that describes an incident at the court involving an African American sentenced to four years in the penitentiary (page 66).

Cocke, Philip St. George (1809–1861), formbooks, 1854–1871. 6 vols. Mss1C6455a.
This collection of formbooks contains the plantation manager's daily record of activities at Beldale and Belmead in Powhatan County. The first part of each book contains a printed block of general guidelines for plantation and farm management, including information on the treatment of slaves, discipline, illness, appropriate clothing and provisions, rules of conduct for slaves, curfews, yard and quarters maintenance, passes, permission to marry, Sunday inspections, morning roll calls, patrols, and restrictions on alcoholic beverages. Following this is a section of agricultural guidelines, which include daily work expections for plowmen, masons, and sawyers. The second part of each book consists of a collection of forms for the manager to complete as needed (inventory forms for slaves, livestock, and tools), followed by the daily record of work. The specific years on record for these two Powhatan County plantations are for Belmead, 1854, 1861, 1866, 1868, and 1871; and for Beldale, 1863.

Cocke family papers, 1742–1976. 245 items. Mss1C6458c. Microfilm reel C399.
Include a cookbook, 1834–1836 (item c11), of Mary Burton Augusta (Bolling) Banister, kept in Petersburg. Endpapers record a handful of slave births. (The cookbook also contains a layout of the kitchen, likely used by the family's cook.)

Cocke family papers, 1770–1860. 1,840 items. Mss1C6458b. Microfilm reels C395–399.
This collection houses the papers of the Amelia County branch of the Cocke family. Most of the papers deal with Woodland plantation in that county. A number of slave lists appear in an account book that covers 1772–1847 (section 2), including births and deaths of slaves at Woodland, along with several accounts with freemen and some hiring accounts. An undated list of slaves belonging to James Powell Cocke includes twenty-seven names grouped into four families (section 29). Three deeds of trust of James Powell Cocke also pertain to slaves (section 26).

A 1793 agreement of Stephen Cocke (section 9) provides for his slave Absalom to work for Charles Hutchenson at the blacksmith trade and for Cocke to provide tools, provisions, and lodgings for both in return for a share of the income from the business.

Cocke family papers, 1794–1981. ca. 2,950 items. Mss1C6458dFA2. Microfilm reel C452.
Among the papers of Elizabeth Preston Cocke are references to the family maid, including a school composition entitled "Mammy." In the correspondence of her mother, Elizabeth Bernard (Meredith) Cocke, is a letter from M. F. Clay, a family maid (box 9, folder 1 of the correspondence), and a later account of the maid's attempt to save the life of Cocke when hit by a car (in the last folder of the correspondence series).

Box 15 includes correspondence with the Junior League and with the Volunteer Service Bureau. The third folder (of six) pertaining to the Junior League contains a program with an image of an African American woman on the front. The records of the Volunteer Service Bureau are contained in three folders, in the first of which is information regarding efforts to recruit African American interviewers for the African American volunteer applicants.

Coffin, Levi (1789–1877), letter, 1849. 4 pp. Mss2C6546a1. Photocopy.
Letter, 11 March 1849, written in Cincinnati, Ohio, to Emory D. Coffin, New Garden, N.J., concerning the Society of Friends' efforts to secure the freedom of James Carr of North Carolina, who had been sold into slavery.

Coleman family papers, 1805–1922. 294 items. Mss1C6773c.
Concerns the Coleman family of Dinwiddie County, Va., and Todd County, Ky. Section 4 includes a deed, 1825, of Williamson Coleman (of Dinwiddie County) to Edwin Newman Coleman concerning the sale of slaves.

Coleman family papers, 1856–1883. 230 items. Mss1C6773a. Microfilm reel C274.
The papers in this family collection focus on the Williamsburg physician Charles Washington Coleman (18261894). Among several letters to his wife, Cynthia Beverley (Tucker) Washington Coleman (section 8), those of Robert Cole of Williamsburg provide basic information on the hire of Martha for 1858 and 1859 and on a visit during that time. Letters of Alfred L. Holladay of Richmond describe the same type of hire for Myra in 1861 and 1862.

Coles, Elizabeth (1791–1865), diary, 1829. 58 pp. Mss5:1C6795:1.
Kept at Enniscorthy, Albemarle County, in David Richardson's Virginia and North Carolina Almanack for the Year 1829 (Richmond, [1828]), containing brief notations for slaves, mostly pertaining to the distribution of supplies.

Comfort family papers, 1848–1900. 174 items. Mss1C7345a. Microfilm reels C499–500.
Includes receipts, 1858, to Daniel McIntosh of Thomas County, Ga., for the slave George, with age, color, and health indications, and an unnamed slave girl (section 2).

Compton family papers, 1839–1924. 102 items. Mss1C7398a.
Primarily concerns the family of Thomas A. Compton (1802?–1861), who moved from Virginia to the Vicksburg, Mississippi, area, where Thomas took up farming and mercantile operations. Some materials reflect generally on the use of enslaved and free labor in cotton growth and production. A letter from H. Gibbon in 1853 discusses a legal case in which Compton disputed the title to a slave bought in Baltimore, Maryland, that was allegedly intended for an owner in New Orleans, Louisiana (section 1). An 1864 letter of W. C. Compton, of Freestone County, Texas, to Thomas's widow, Eliza (Shaw) Compton (b. 1805?), concerns safe passage for a slave, Alex, who was being sent by her son Charles, then serving in the Confederate Army, to deliver letters to family members (section 1). Correspondence, 1851–1861, of one of Compton's daughters, Eleanora V. Compton (b. 1830?), includes an 1860 letter from her sister Mary, who attended a concert given by an African American pianist, Blind Tom, while an undated missive from her brother Walter, who was attending Centenary College in Jackson, Louisiana (now in Shreveport) contains inquiries regarding the punishment of a runaway slave named Buck, who was recaptured. He also mentions establishments in Jackson that were open on the Sabbath and traded with African Americans (section 2). An 1852 letter from Walter to his sister Mary mentions the attack on and murder of an African American youth by one of Walter's fellow students at Centenary, while a letter in 1866 mentions his difficulties in utilizing black laborers in Texas because of problems in working with the Freedmen's Bureau (section 2).

Confederate States of America. Army. Department of Henrico, pass, 1863. 1 p. Mss2G8666a1.
Pass, dated 6 August 1863, Richmond, issued to Mr. [?] Gresham to visit military prisons to identify African Americans.

Confederate States of America. Army. Department of Henrico, records, 1861–1864. 922 items. Mss3C7604a. Microfilm reels C589–591.
These records largely concern military and civilian prisoners held in military prisons and hospitals in Richmond. Section eight contains letters written to Thomas Pratt Turner (1841–1900) as commander of Confederate military prisons in Richmond and includes a letter from Daniel Brinkley of Nansemond County requesting the release of Jesse Langston, a free African American.

Confederate States of America. Army. Department of Northern Virginia. Engineers Office, letterbook, 1861. 325–337 pp. Mss4C7a8.
Pages 325, 331, and 337 of the letterbook concern African American laborers in the Confederate Army.

Confederate States of America. War Department, pass, 1865. 1 p. Mss4C7609a1.
Pass, 16 February 1865, Richmond, issued to Bob, slave of John C. Maynard, to visit King and Queen County. The printed form bears handwritten completions for age, height, and color.

Conn, Francis K., bond, 1824. 1 p. Mss2C7624a1.
Bond, 29 January 1824, to Charles C. Johnston, to pay $50 for hire of a young boy, payable in Tennessee bank notes, specifying clothing allowance and providing for the payment of taxes on the slave.

Conrad, Holmes (1840–1916), papers, 1794–1959. 392 items. Mss1C7637a. Microfilm reel B13.
Includes an agreement, 1833, between Robert Conrad and D. H. Conrad concerning ownership of Silvia and her three children, Silvia's choice of owner, and her annuity (section 25).

Conrad, Robert Young (1805–1875), papers, 1850–1944. 156 items. Mss1C7638a.
The papers of a Winchester lawyer primarily concern Virginia's 1861 convention and deal with secession. Many of the notes (for which a typescript is also available) deal with abolitionism secondarily. About three pages of 1861 notes pertain to the distinction between manslaughter and premeditated murder, for use in the defense of George, a slave (section 2).

Converse, Charles S., comp., Memorial of Amasa Converse, D.D. [107] pp. Mss7:1C7692:1.
Materials concern the life of Amasa Converse (1795–1872), who was editor of the Christian Observer (newspaper of Richmond) from 1827 until his death. Include autobiographical sketch, abstract of will written in Richmond, biographical sketch by Rev. L. P. Yandell, M.D., obituary notices, and printed articles. Collection offers insight into the educational system of the early 1800s, the division of the Presbyterian church over the issue of slave ownership, and the development of the Presbyterian publication, the Christian Observer.

Cooke, Giles Buckner (1838–1937), diary, 1863. 1 vol. Mss5:1C7745:10. Microfilm reel C593.
One of a series of diaries kept by a Confederate officer serving in the Army of Western Virginia, this particular volume makes a passing mention of witnessing the hanging of a slave (belonging to an army man) while in Saltville on 7 July. The lynching mob believed the slave had raped a white woman.

Cooke, Giles Buckner (1838–1937), papers, 1829–1946. 334 items. Mss1C7752b.
Largely concern the service of Giles Buckner Cooke in the Confederate States Army and his career serving as an Episcopalian minister in North East, Md., Mathews Court House, and Portsmouth, Va., much of which focuses on his religious work among African Americans. Among Cookes correspondence, 1861–1936, in section 1 is also a letter from Thomas Underwood Dudley, who wrote to Cooke concerning Episcopalian missionary work among African Americans in Louisville, Ky.

Cooke, Giles Buckner (1838–1937), papers, 1864–1937. 157 items. Mss1C7752a.
Cooke was a former Confederate Army staff officer and an Episcopal clergyman from Mathews County who served in Virginia, Maryland, and Kentucky following the war. Cooke kept a diary every year, fifty-eight volumes of which survive in this collection for the years 1872–1927. During that period he served for twelve years as rector of St. Stephen's Episcopal Church in Petersburg, the first regularly constituted black Episcopal church in Virginia. During that period he was involved in the education of freedmen. A letter of African American clergyman George Freeman Bragg in 1908 (section 2) reviews the early history of St. Stephen's Church, the rectorship of Alexander W. Weddell, and the construction of a church building with funds channeled through the Freedmen's Bureau. Section 6 contains Cooke's undated notes for a speech on the freedmen of the South, based on his own experiences.

Coolidge, Joseph (1798–1879), memorandum, [1826?]. 3 pp. Mss2C7784a2.
Notes concerning the loss of Thomas Jefferson's fortune, incidentally mentioning his slaves in general.

Coons family papers, 1828–1982. 1,208 items. Mss1C7835a.
This collection of a Culpeper County family is fairly representative of the papers of smaller estate owners in nineteenth-century Virginia. References to African Americans are few, but notes in section 5 concern the hire of Solomon for help in the construction of North Cliff in Culpeper County. Section 27 includes the lots drawn by Clarke Hume Thompson from an unidentified 1857 estate containing twelve slaves. In the same section is an 1862 bond of F. McCarthy to Thompson for the hire of a slave at $30 per month.

Cooper, Samuel (1798–1876), letter, 1864. 4 pp. Mss2C7876a1. Photocopy.
Written from Richmond to Sarah Maria (Mason) Cooper concerning hiring out arrangements to be made for several domestic slaves, Davie, Christine, and Henrietta. The slaves' specific skills are also discussed.

Cooper family papers, 1786–1910. 161 items. Mss1C7887a.
Primarily the papers of General Samuel Cooper (1798–1876) of Cameron, Fairfax County, while serving in the United States and Confederate States armies. Include a letter, [1857], of Maria Mason (Cooper) Wheaton to her brother Samuel Mason Cooper concerning the funeral of their grandmother Anna Maria (Murray) Mason of Alexandria and the disposition of her enslaved servants (section 5).

Corbin, Richard (1714–1790), papers, 17671797. 13 items. Mss2C8114b.
The second folder of section 2 contains a list of slaves at Moss Neck, Caroline County, and Richland Quarter, King and Queen County, as of 18 May 1778 listing men, women, and children, with ages provided for children. Deaths occurring in the past year are noted.

Corr family papers, 1688–1975. 145 items. Mss1C8177a.
Most of these papers concern nineteenth-century family members from King and Queen County. In section 7 is a single item of African American interest: an 1838 deed of Anthony G. Shackelford to Thomas Corr containing valuations for three men and three women slaves in the division of the estate of George Shackelford.

Cottrell family papers, 1806–1862. 3 items. Mss2C8297b. Photocopies.
This collection includes two letters concerning slavery, including one to Mary Jerdone (Denton) Cottrell of Ellerslie, Henrico County, concerning slave children on the plantation, and a second to Thomas Mitchell concerning the purchase of a slave named Isham. Originals in private hands.

Couper Marble Works, Norfolk, records, 1848–1942. c. 32,500 items. Mss3C8325a.
This successful Norfolk business, founded in 1848, operated until 1981 (and was later known as Couper Memorial Works). It specialized in the import and carving of stone for construction and cemetery monuments. Among the extensive records of the firm, including letterbooks, account books, contracts, and loose financial papers, is information regarding the hiring of slaves to work for the company during the late antebellum period.

Cox, John (d. 1793), appraisal, [1791]. 1 p. Mss2C8396a1.
An appraisal of the estate of Edward Cox of Powhatan County, prepared by John Cox, James Bagbey, Anthony Minter, and Samuel White for the Powhatan County Court, includes listings and monetary evaluations of slaves, along with other personal property.

Craig, Robert, letter, 1800. 1 p. Mss2C8447a1.
Letter, dated 22 December 1800, from Craig to John Marshall concerning William Claiborne of Manchester and an exchange of land and slaves in Buckingham County, Manchester, and Richmond.

Craig House Art Center, Richmond, records, 1938–1941. 250 items. Mss3C8443a.
This collection comprises the records of a fine arts association in Richmond as collected by the treasurer, Emily Thomason. The center was located in a restored APVA property, the Craig House. Its primary purpose was to promote an interest in fine arts among African Americans in the Richmond community. In addition to lectures by prominent artists, the center also offered classes in such subjects as painting, commercial art, sculpture, woodworking and carving, and music and dancing. The collection includes treasurers' reports, annual summaries, guides to exhibits (including brief biographical sketches of artists), schedules, minutes, and organizational charts. Correspondents include Adèle Clark of the Virginia Arts Program, Arthur Durant (on establishing a trade school program in upholstery), Zenobia Gilpin (concerning a garden party honoring Marian Anderson), John Davis Hatch (for an excellent summary of the arts program), Lettice Lee Woodward Whitlock Smith (a reminder that Craig House is not a trade school), and Jesse M. Tinsely (of the Richmond Branch of the NAACP). The miscellaneous file contains several photocopies of newspaper clippings about the center. When the association dissolved, the board decided to give its remaining assets to Virginia Union University's Art Department.

Cravens, Addision (b. 1819?), affidavit, 1863. [2] pp. Mss2C8557a1.
Affidavit, dated 15 December 1863, Fort Smith, Ark., concerning enlistment in the U.S. Army, Department of the Missouri, Second Colored Kansas Infantry Regiment, of Addison Cravens (of Tazewell County, Va.).

Crenshaw family papers, 1807–1977. 120 items. Mss1C8635a.
This collection primarily focuses on the business enterprises and achievements of Crenshaw family members of Richmond, including cotton and flour milling and trade in iron and steel. Correspondence, dated between 1833 and 1838, of Lewis Dabney Crenshaw (1817–1875) with his parents (section 1) includes references to a fire at the tobacco factory of William Gray in Richmond, which employed a large number of African American laborers (8 September 1833); the same letter also describes an attempt by slaves to escape to freedom in the holds of schooners docked at Richmond. Lewis also makes frequent references in this correspondence to his relationships with family slaves, including Uncle Gabriel, Jenna, Reubin (his personal slave), and James (a former slave who escaped to Boston, Mass.). Later correspondence, 1865–1869, of Lewis Crenshaw and his son Lewis Dabney, Jr.(section 3), primarily concerns the effects of the fall of the Confederacy and Richmond's occupation by Federal forces. Writing to his mother, Lewis, Jr. (b. 1845), specifically comments on fears of white Richmond residents about living under an all-African American policy force, as proposed by the Union commandant (30 March 1869). A series of transcriptions of letters now damaged, missing, or still in private hands (section 4) includes a letter of Francis Graves, who emigrated to Warren County, Ky., and wrote back to family members in Orange County regarding violence among slaves and a planned murder plot by a slave named Jane against her master, James Cowherd (25 November 1815). Also, a letter from Spotswood Dabney Crenshaw (1787–1859) concerns a relationship between a free black man named Buck and a slave named Lucy and offers the perspective of an owner concerned about the welfare of a premature, sick infant born of their union (16 October 1821). Finally, an undated letter by Spotswood Crenshaw provides his critical description of a meeting of the American Colonization Society in Philadelphia run by abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison.

Crew, A. M., list, [1861?]. 2 pp. Mss2C8676a1.
List of slave births occurring between 1822 and 1861 for slaves belonging to A. M. Crew, including name, date of birth, and mother's name.

Cropper, John (1755–1821), papers, 17791820. 396 items. Mss1C8835a. Microfilm reel B14.
The papers of this prominent Accomack County planter contain several items of correspondence of African American content. Sampson Mathews of Richmond asks Cropper in 1775 to look for a slave girl accustomed to waiting on ladies, in addition to his earlier request for four slaves, because his wife is now in need of a maid. Shortly after he indicates that he also needs a carriage driver. He specifies what qualities he desires for each of these slaves (section 1). A 1792 letter from William Seymour of Baltimore concerns Luke, a runaway slave of Cropper. Luke had been committed to jail for robbery.

For a broader scope, Richard Drummond Bayly of Richmond comments on slavery as he describes several bills before the Virginia legislature in 1805. With respect to the nonimportation bill, Bayly adds his perspective on the African race in general. As to the proposed prohibition on the emancipation of slaves, he writes it is inconsistent with the national Bill of Rights' concept of freedom. Taking away the hope of freedom could lead to insurrections.

Cunningham, Richard Eggleston (1885–1932), papers, 1790–1978. 194 items. Mss1C9175a.
Much of this collection consists of correspondence of several generations of a Richmond mercantile family. Investments included several mills on the James River, as well as the James River Canal Company. The only significant references to African Americans occur in section 2, which contains a small series of estate records. In this section is an 1836 agreement concerning the division by lots of slaves belonging to the estate of Edward Cunningham (1771–1836). The division concerns two properties, Hughes Creek in Powhatan County and Howard's Neck in Goochland County. Values are provided, and several children and one cripple are noted. In addition, there is a typescript of an 1813 inventory of property of Richard Cunningham that includes four male and one female slave.

Curles Neck, Henrico County, records, 1843–1848. 10 items. Mss4C9282b.
Includes lists of slaves, property, and crops, as well as goods received, at Curles Neck and Tillmans, Henrico County. At the time, Curles Neck was owned by William Allen (1815–1875).

Curry, Jabez Lamar Monroe (1805–1903), letter, 1859. 1 p. Mss2C9375a1.
Letter, 11 May 1859, Talladega, Ala., to Henry Alexander Wise in Richmond briefly mentions teaching appropriate behavior to African American youths.

Curtis, Henry (1792–1862), papers, 1774–1865. 324 items. Mss1C9434a. Microfilm reel C327.
In this collection are the personal papers of a Hanover County physician and a significant number of medical documents, with a few legal papers. In section 5 is a deed of trust of Dr. Henry Curtis to Parke Street for eleven slaves. An 1825 deed of trust in section 7 (William Richardson to Curtis) pertains to the slave James.

Curtis, Henry (1792–1862), papers, 1804–1857. 16 items. Mss2C9435b. Microfilm reel C327.
In this collection of papers (pertaining to the same Hanover physician in the above entry) are a number of bonds and accounts relating to the hire of several slaves: Dolly, 1840, for $40; Humphrey, 1850, for $45; and Henry, 1814, for $60; an 1828–1829 account for the hiring of Tom, Charles, Robin, and Anna; and an 1825 bond to Bowling Batkins providing values for Old Tom, Charles, Robert, Anna, Becky, Eliza, and Sarah. An 1833 affidavit of John Pate concerns Tazewell Barker's capture of William, slave of Dr. Curtis. Also included in the collection is a series of lists of slaves. Lists of slaves at Powhite plantation, 1831–1845, include about twenty slaves by age and value. A list of Pitman Kidd's estate provides information about seventeen slaves, including age, value, parents, and notes as to who is a carpenter, who is subject to fits, and who has varicose veins. In 1853, Dr. Curtis acquired a life insurance policy for Judy, issued by the Richmond Fire Association.

Custis, John (1678–1749), agreement, 1712. 1 p. Mss2C9694a7 oversize. Photocopy.
Agreement, 25 April 1712, of John Custis and Frances (Parke) Custis with William Byrd II, concerning a division of land in James City, New Kent, and York counties in Virginia and Hampshire, England, and fifty slaves owned by Daniel Parke II, listing them by name with some indicated by plantation affiliation.

Custis, Mary Lee (Fitzhugh) (1788–1853), papers. 3 items. Mss2C9695a.
This group contains several separately acquired items, two of which are pertinent for the researcher of African American material. The first (item a1) is an 1831 letter of Mary Lee (Fitzhugh) Custis to Mary Anna Randolph (Custis) Lee, which refers to the Southampton Insurrection, the Liberator, edited in Boston, her opinion of northern attitudes and abolitionism, and colonization, which she perceives as the only "proper" solution.

The second letter (item a2) has no date. It is from Lilly, a freed slave who writes to Mary Custis, her former mistress, of her affection for Custis, her concern about Custis's illness, and her appreciation of Custis's care when Lilly was ill herself the previous winter.

Custis, Mary Lee (Fitzhugh) (1788–1853), papers, 18181902. 8 items. Mss2C9695b.
In addition to being connected with several prominent Virginia families (Fitzhughs, Lees, Meades, Randolphs), Mary Custis was an ardent supporter of the colonization efforts in Liberia. In this collection is a series of correspondence with Bishop William Meade, in which he speaks of his support for colonization and intention to free his own slaves, in stages, to send to Liberia. An 1836 letter states that the Virginia Senate will consider providing $800 for the colonization society; Meade sees this as a "test vote" on whether the society will be able to expect official support in the future. An 1830 letter of Ann Randolph (Meade) Page includes a copy of Susan Meade's will providing for the emancipation of her three female slaves (a mother and two daughters) and the purchase of Andy, the husband and father of the family. Susan Meade also expected them to pursue education and hoped they would join the Liberian colony.

In the undated seventh letter, Ann Randolph (Meade) Page writes to Mary Custis of her desire to see West Africa christianized by the Liberian colony. She hopes the colonization prospects will encourage African Americans. She describes American emancipation as being in a "sorry state," hopes quality freedmen will be the foundation of Liberia, and speaks highly of Lucy's family as likely prospective colonists.

Custis family papers, 1683–1858. 909 items. Mss1C9698a. Microfilm reels C12, C156–157, and C223–224.
This collection contains papers of several members of the prominent Virginia families of Custis, Lee, Parke, and Washington. The family owned a number of plantations in Arlington, Fairfax, King William, New Kent, Northampton, and York counties.

Most of the African American information in this collection is found in lists and inventories. Generally, these contain names and ages and are grouped by plantation. Occasionally they also indicate a particular trade or skill. A list for plantations in King William and York counties (undated, section 14) indicates children's heights. Other inventories are in section 19 (Samuel Trower's plantation in New Kent County, 1771), section 21 (items a394 and a399 are inventories of plantations in Fairfax, King William, New Kent, Northampton, and York counties, 1771), and section 31 (George Washington Parke Custis's plantations in New Kent and King William counties, 1820–1825). Lists of tithables survive for New Kent County, 1736–1742, indicating that boys under age ten do not work (section 39), and Middlesex County, 1770 (section 43). Section 6 contains a deed of trust, 1747, involving Jack, a freedman.

Section 12 contains notes, 1750, of Daniel Parke Custis indicating which slave children of his father's estate were sold to whom and which were entailed. In section 20 is an account, 1760–1770, of slaves and carpenters sold from the estate of Daniel Parke Custis. An overseer's agreement, 1796 (section 22), designates that James Anderson's family will have at their service a slave woman to wash and cook and a boy, age fifteen or less, and a girl, age twelve or less, to tend the house and garden.

In correspondence from Joseph Valentine, George Washington's overseer in York County in the late 1760s, Valentine informs Washington of which slaves have become "past labor" in the last year (item a282) and of his problems trying to clothe 140 slaves (item a289). Items a291 and a294 are imperfect, concerning unnamed slaves.

In section 23 is a 1764 warrant for an unnamed runaway slave. Another runaway slave, James, was returned by William Boyd (affidavit, 1822, section 32). In 1824, John Walden responded to accusations of stabbing, drowning, and starving slaves (also section 32).

Cyrus (Ship), bill of lading, 1824. 1 p. Mss4C9935a1.
Bill of lading covers tobacco, books, and clothes shipped aboard the Cyrus to Lott Cary, a freed African American living in Liberia.

Updated August 1, 2012