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Chapter
1
Wandering, Foraging, and Farming
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Chapter
2
Exploration of the New World
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Chapter
3
Contact and Conflict
Time Period

16,000 BCE to 1622 CE

Wandering, Foraging, and Farming

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“A Chief Lady of Pomeiooc,” by Theodore de Bry after John White, an English artist and cartographer, 1590. (VMHC 2000.100.2)
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Clovis Point, about 9500 BCE. Paleo-Indians quarried chert, chalcedony, and jasper to make Clovis points. These stones, used as the tips of projectiles and as knife blades, are named after the New Mexico site where they were first discovered. (Courtesy of the Virginia Department of Historic Resources)
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Grinding Stone, about 4000 BCE
Grinding Stone, about 4000 BCE. Grinding stones made nuts and seeds more edible, but it introduced bits of stone into the food. The chewing of gritty meal wore down peoples’ teeth. (Courtesy of the Department of Historic Resources)
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Steatite Bowl, about 2000 BCE. Steatite, or soapstone, could be easily carved to make cooking bowls. Its use suggests that people were more settled because the bowls were heavy and difficult to move. (Courtesy of the Department of Historic Resources)
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Woodland Hoe Blade, about 1500
Woodland Hoe Blade, about 1500. The hoe was used to till or turn over the soil in farming and allowed the cultivation of large quantities of food to support growing populations. (Courtesy of the Department of Historic Resources)
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Stone Pipe, about 1500. A non-food crop, tobacco was important in social rituals and religious ceremonies. Pipes were often made from stone as well as clay. (Courtesy of the Department of Historic Resources)
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Bola, about 1500
Bola, about 1500. A bola consists of two heavy stone balls attached with a strong cord. It was swung and hurled at waterfowl that became entangled as the bola wrapped around them. (Courtesy of the Department of Historic Resources)
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Ceramic Bowl, about 1000
Ceramic Bowl, about 1000. Pottery was crafted by pinching together coils of clay dug from riverbanks; paddles wrapped with cord or net were were used to shape the exterior. (Courtesy of the Department of Historic Resources)

Explore Time Periods

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16,000 BCE to 1622 CE
A Land of Opportunity: Creating Virginia
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1623 to 1763
A Distant Dominion
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1764 to 1824
From British Colony to American State
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1825 to 1860
Challenge of a New Century
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1861 to 1876
Civil War and Reconstruction
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1877 to 1924
Virginia in the New South
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1925 to Today
Dynamic Dominion

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